The behavioral pharmacology of alcohol and other drugs. Emerging issues.

Marilyn E Carroll, M. L. Stitzer, E. Strain, R. A. Meisch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Alcohol and other drugs are compared with respect to their abuse liability and dependence potential. Drug-reinforced behavior is defined, and factors related to the establishment of this behavior that have received increasing experimental attention in recent years are reviewed. Acquisition techniques, schedule of access, route of self-administration, and organism factors, such as species, gender, and genetic background, are discussed. Other areas of emerging interest are the effect of feeding regimens, alternative reinforcers, and social conditions on drug-reinforced behavior. Also, biochemical factors such as neurochemical alterations, hormonal changes, and alcohol and other drug combinations, are considered. Finally, dependence potential is considered in terms of observational changes and performance alterations that seem to be sensitive indicators of the protracted aspects of drug withdrawal. The relationship between drug-seeking behavior and withdrawal is examined.


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