The doctoral degree has been established as the educational requirement for psychology licensure in most states. It has been accepted as the standard for independent practice by most psychological organizations since the profession emerged, but it continues to be a source of controversy. The rationale for the doctoral standard and historical developments are reviewed. The benefits of maintaining the doctoral standard are also presented. Comparisons between master's and doctoral-level training and practitioners are reviewed. Potential roles for nondoctoral practitioners are discussed.