The association of periodontal disease with kidney function decline: A longitudinal retrospective analysis of the MrOS dental study

Vanessa Grubbs, Eric Vittinghoff, George Taylor, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, Neil Powe, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Areef Ishani, Steven R. Cummings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Identifying modifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is essential for reducing its burden. Periodontal disease is common, modifiable and has been implicated as a novel potential CKD risk factor, but evidence of its association with kidney function decline over time is limited. Methods In a longitudinal retrospective cohort of 761 elderly men with preserved kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using a calibrated creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) equation] at baseline, we performed multivariable Poisson's regression to examine the association of severe periodontal disease with incident CKD, defined as incident eGFRcr-cys <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and rapid (>5% annualized) eGFRcr-cys decline. Severe periodontal disease was defined in two ways: (i) ≥5 mm proximal attachment loss in 30% of teeth examined (European Workshop in Periodontology Group C, European Workshop); and (ii) 2+ interproximal sites with attachment loss ≥6 mm and 1+ interproximal sites with probing depth ≥5 mm (Centers for Disease Control/American Academy of Periodontology, CDC/AAP). Results At baseline, the mean age was 73.4 (SD 4.8) years, the median eGFRcr-cys was 82.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 35.5 and 25.4% of participants had severe periodontal disease by European Workshop and CDC/AAP criteria, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (SD 0.3), 56 (7.4%) participants had incident CKD. Severe periodontal disease was associated with a 2-fold greater rate of incident CKD [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.01 (1.21-3.44), P = 0.007] after adjusting for confounders compared with not severe periodontal disease by European Workshop criteria but did not reach statistical significance by CDC/AAP criteria [IRR 1.10 (0.63-1.91), P = 0.9]. Conclusions Severe periodontal disease may be associated with incident clinically significant kidney function decline among a cohort of elderly men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)466-472
Number of pages7
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

Keywords

  • chronic kidney disease
  • periodontal disease
  • renal function decline
  • risk factors

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