The association between coeliac disease and periodontitis: Results from NHANES 2009–2012

Thomas Spinell, Francesco DeMayo, Matthew Cato, Ashley Thai, Eva J. Helmerhorst, Peter H.R. Green, Benjamin Lebwohl, Ryan T. Demmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Aim: To investigate whether coeliac disease (CD) was associated with periodontitis among a nationally representative sample of US adults. Materials and Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2012 enrolled 6,661 subjects with full-mouth periodontal examination and serological testing for antitissue transglutaminase (tTg) and antiendomysial (EMA) antibodies. CD was defined as (i) self-reported physician diagnosis while on a gluten-free diet; or (ii) tTg levels >10.0 U/ml and positive EMA results. Positive serology without self-reported diagnosis was defined as undiagnosed CD (UdxCD). Periodontitis was defined according to the CDC/AAP definition. Multivariable linear and logistic models were used to regress the mean probing depth (PD) or attachment loss (AL) outcomes across CD categories (none, diagnosed and undiagnosed). Results: The prevalence of moderate/severe periodontitis and diagnosed/undiagnosed CD was 40% and 0.74%, respectively. Mean AL was lower among those with CD although results were not statistically significant (p =.67). The odds of periodontitis among individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed CD were: 0.5(0.22, 1.16) and 0.62(0.1, 3.75), respectively. Mean PD levels among those without CD or with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD were 1.49 ± 0.02, 1.36 ± 0.11 and 1.31 ± 0.11 (p =.03). Conclusion: CD is associated with modestly lower levels of mean PD but was not associated with mean AL or periodontitis. Larger studies are necessary to enhance precision and strengthen conclusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-310
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of clinical periodontology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd


  • Sprue
  • cross-sectional Studies
  • digestive system and oral physiology
  • digestive system diseases
  • oral health
  • periodontal diseases
  • periodontics
  • wheat hypersensitivity


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