The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to consider since the training of counseling psychologists is heavily dominated by theories of psychotherapy that emphasize remediation rather than prevention. This article discusses a brief history and explanation of TRA/PB along with relevant research, limitations, and multicultural considerations. Elicitation research, an important component of the model, receives emphasis because it solicits population-specific cognitions and social influences relevant to targeted behaviors, thus strengthening prevention interventions. An example demonstrates how TRA/PB can be used as a theoretical framework to support prevention research. Recommendations for prevention training of counseling psychologists are presented.