The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Task Force on clinical algorithms for fracture risk report

Sherri Ann M. Burnett-Bowie, Nicole C. Wright, Elaine W. Yu, Lisa Langsetmo, Gabby M.H. Yearwood, Carolyn J. Crandall, William D. Leslie, Jane A. Cauley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Using race and ethnicity in clinical algorithms potentially contributes to health inequities. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) Professional Practice Committee convened the ASBMR Task Force on Clinical Algorithms for Fracture Risk to determine the impact of race and ethnicity adjustment in the US Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (US-FRAX). The Task Force engaged the University of Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Core to conduct a systematic review investigating the performance of US-FRAX for predicting incident fractures over 10 years in Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White individuals. Six studies from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) were eligible; cohorts only included women and were predominantly White (WHI > 80% and SOF > 99%), data were not consistently stratified by race and ethnicity, and when stratified there were far fewer fractures in Black and Hispanic women vs White women rendering area under the curve (AUC) estimates less stable. In the younger WHI cohort (n = 64 739), US-FRAX without bone mineral density (BMD) had limited discrimination for major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) (AUC 0.53 (Black), 0.57 (Hispanic), and 0.57 (White)); somewhat better discrimination for hip fracture in White women only (AUC 0.54 (Black), 0.53 (Hispanic), and 0.66 (White)). In a subset of the older WHI cohort (n = 23 918), US-FRAX without BMD overestimated MOF. The Task Force concluded that there is little justification for estimating fracture risk while incorporating race and ethnicity adjustments and recommends that fracture prediction models not include race or ethnicity adjustment but instead be population-based and reflective of US demographics, and inclusive of key clinical, behavioral, and social determinants (where applicable). Research cohorts should be representative vis-À-vis race, ethnicity, gender, and age. There should be standardized collection of race and ethnicity; collection of social determinants of health to investigate impact on fracture risk; and measurement of fracture rates and BMD in cohorts inclusive of those historically underrepresented in osteoporosis research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)517-530
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s).


  • fracture
  • fracture risk assessment tool
  • FRAX
  • health disparities
  • osteoporosis
  • race and ethnicity

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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