Acute cervical adenitis was investigated in 26 children over a 33-month period. Lymph nodes were aspirated and cultured to, yield Staphylococcus aureus or group-A streptococci or both from 22 (84.6%) of the aspirates. Mycobacterium kansasii was isolated from one child. By combined culture and serial serological tests (antistreptolysin-O, anti-DNAase B, and anti-NADase), 50% of the cases were found to be associated with streptococcal infection. In a few children, S. aureus was the only organism recovered, and appeared to be the aetiological agent.