The active papillary muscle sign in 18F-FDG PET/CT cardiac sarcoidosis exams and its relationship with myocardial suppression

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Objective: Papillary muscle (PM) activity may demonstrate true active cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) or mimic CS in 18FDG-PET/CT if adequate myocardial suppression (MS) is not achieved. We aim to examine whether PM uptake can be used as a marker of failed MS and measure the rate of PM activity presence in active CS with different dietary preparations. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed PET/CTs obtained with three different dietary preparations. Diet-A: 24-h ketogenic diet with overnight fasting (n = 94); Diet-B: 18-h fasting (n = 44); and Diet-C: 72-h daytime ketogenic diet with 3-day overnight fasting (n = 98). Each case was evaluated regarding CS diagnosis (negative, positive, and indeterminant) and presence of PM activity. MaxSUV was measured from bloodpool, liver, and the most suppressed normal myocardium. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare these factors between those with PM activity and those without. Results: PM activity was markedly lower in the Diet-C group compared with others: Diet-C: 6 (6.1%), Diet-A: 36 (38.3%), and Diet-B: 26 (59.1%) (p < 0.001). MyocardiumMaxSUV was higher, and MyocardiummaxSUV/BloodpoolmaxSUV, MyocardiummaxSUV/LivermaxSUV ratios were significantly higher in the cases with PM activity (p < 0.001). Among cases that used Diet-C and had PM activity, 66.7% were positive and 16.7% were indeterminate. If Diet-A or Diet-B was used, those with PM activity had a higher proportion of indeterminate cases (Diet-A: 61.1%, Diet-B: 61.5%) than positive cases (Diet-A: 36.1%, Diet-B: 38.5%). Conclusion: Lack of PM activity can be a sign of appropriate MS. PM activity is less common with a specific dietary preparation (72-h daytime ketogenic diet with 3-day overnight fasting), and if it is present with this particular preparation, the likelihood that the case being true active CS might be higher than the other traditional dietary preparations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of Nuclear Medicine
StatePublished - Mar 2024

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© The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine 2024.

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