Testing whether the DSM-5 personality disorder trait model can be measured with a reduced set of items: An item response theory investigation of the personality inventory for DSM-5

Jessica L. Maples, Nathan T. Carter, Lauren R. Few, Cristina Crego, Whitney L. Gore, Douglas B. Samuel, Rachel L. Williamson, Donald R. Lynam, Thomas A. Widiger, Kristian E. Markon, Robert F. Krueger, Joshua D. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations

Abstract

The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes an alternative model of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III, consisting in part of a pathological personality trait model. To date, the 220-item Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) is the only extant self-report instrument explicitly developed to measure this pathological trait model. The present study used item response theory-based analyses in a large sample (n = 1,417) to investigate whether a reduced set of 100 items could be identified from the PID-5 that could measure the 25 traits and 5 domains. This reduced set of PID-5 items was then tested in a community sample of adults currently receiving psychological treatment (n = 109). Across a wide range of criterion variables including NEO PI-R domains and facets, DSM-5 Section II PD scores, and externalizing and internalizing outcomes, the correlational profiles of the original and reduced versions of the PID-5 were nearly identical (rICC = .995). These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that an abbreviated set of PID-5 items can be used to reliably, validly, and efficiently assess these personality disorder traits. The ability to assess the DSM-5 Section III traits using only 100 items has important implications in that it suggests these traits could still be measured in settings in which assessment-related resources (e.g., time, compensation) are limited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1195-1210
Number of pages16
JournalPsychological assessment
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Assessment
  • DSM-5
  • Personality
  • Personality disorders

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