Testing the double-deficit hypothesis in an adult sample

Carlin J. Miller, Scott R. Miller, Juliana S. Bloom, Lauren Jones, William Lindstrom, Jason Craggs, Mauricio Garcia-Barrera, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Jeffrey W. Gilger, George W. Hynd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that reading deficits are more severe in individuals with weaknesses in phonological awareness and rapid naming than in individuals with deficits in only one of these reading composite skills. In this study, the hypothesis was tested in an adult sample as a model of reading achievement. Participants were parents of children referred for evaluation of reading difficulties. Approximately half of all participants reported difficulty learning to read in childhood and a small subset demonstrated ongoing weaknesses in reading. Structural equation modeling results suggest that the double-deficit hypothesis is an accurate model for understanding adult reading achievement. Better reading achievement was associated with better phonological awareness and faster rapid automatized naming in adults. Posthoc analyses indicated that individuals with double deficits had significantly lower reading achievement than individuals with single deficits or no deficits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-102
Number of pages20
JournalAnnals of Dyslexia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Preparation of this manuscript was supported in part by a grant to the final author (GWH; NIH/NICHD-1-R01-26890-07) Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2006 Copyright ©2006 by The International Dyslexia Association® ISSN 0736-9387


  • Adults
  • Dyslexia
  • Phonological awareness
  • Rapid naming
  • Reading
  • Reading disability
  • Statistical models


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