Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research

Patricia A. Frazier, Andrew P. Tix, Kenneth E. Barron

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2768 Scopus citations


The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The authors focus on the use of multiple regression because it is an accessible data-analytic technique contained in major statistical packages. When appropriate, they also note limitations of using regression to detect moderator and mediator effects and describe alternative procedures, particularly structural equation modeling. Finally, to illustrate areas of confusion in counseling psychology research, they review research testing moderation and mediation that was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 2001.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-134
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004


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