Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research

Patricia A Frazier, Andrew P. Tix, Kenneth E. Barron

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2122 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The authors focus on the use of multiple regression because it is an accessible data-analytic technique contained in major statistical packages. When appropriate, they also note limitations of using regression to detect moderator and mediator effects and describe alternative procedures, particularly structural equation modeling. Finally, to illustrate areas of confusion in counseling psychology research, they review research testing moderation and mediation that was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 2001.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-134
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Volume51
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004

Fingerprint

Counseling
Psychology
Confusion
Research
Reading

Cite this

Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. / Frazier, Patricia A; Tix, Andrew P.; Barron, Kenneth E.

In: Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 01.01.2004, p. 115-134.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Frazier, Patricia A ; Tix, Andrew P. ; Barron, Kenneth E. / Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. In: Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2004 ; Vol. 51, No. 1. pp. 115-134.
@article{a9d7a5f2ba31484685bfe497e4312988,
title = "Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research",
abstract = "The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The authors focus on the use of multiple regression because it is an accessible data-analytic technique contained in major statistical packages. When appropriate, they also note limitations of using regression to detect moderator and mediator effects and describe alternative procedures, particularly structural equation modeling. Finally, to illustrate areas of confusion in counseling psychology research, they review research testing moderation and mediation that was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 2001.",
author = "Frazier, {Patricia A} and Tix, {Andrew P.} and Barron, {Kenneth E.}",
year = "2004",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/0022-0167.51.1.115",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "51",
pages = "115--134",
journal = "Journal of Counseling Psychology",
issn = "0022-0167",
publisher = "American Psychological Association",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research

AU - Frazier, Patricia A

AU - Tix, Andrew P.

AU - Barron, Kenneth E.

PY - 2004/1/1

Y1 - 2004/1/1

N2 - The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The authors focus on the use of multiple regression because it is an accessible data-analytic technique contained in major statistical packages. When appropriate, they also note limitations of using regression to detect moderator and mediator effects and describe alternative procedures, particularly structural equation modeling. Finally, to illustrate areas of confusion in counseling psychology research, they review research testing moderation and mediation that was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 2001.

AB - The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The authors focus on the use of multiple regression because it is an accessible data-analytic technique contained in major statistical packages. When appropriate, they also note limitations of using regression to detect moderator and mediator effects and describe alternative procedures, particularly structural equation modeling. Finally, to illustrate areas of confusion in counseling psychology research, they review research testing moderation and mediation that was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 2001.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0842346778&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0842346778&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0022-0167.51.1.115

DO - 10.1037/0022-0167.51.1.115

M3 - Review article

VL - 51

SP - 115

EP - 134

JO - Journal of Counseling Psychology

JF - Journal of Counseling Psychology

SN - 0022-0167

IS - 1

ER -