Temporary Citizens: U.S. Immigration Law and Liberian Refugees

Jennifer Simmelink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Section 244 of the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act provides temporary legal residency to nationals of designated countries residing in the United States who cannot return to their home country due to armed conflict, natural disaster, or other temporary devastating conditions. In most cases Temporary Protected Status (TPS) is temporary, lasting no more than 2 years. In other cases, particularly for Liberia, TPS status has lasted almost 20 years. This article will examine the consequences of protracted TPS status for Liberians in the United States, as well as place the issue within emerging theoretical frameworks of globalizing citizenship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-344
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Temporary Protected Status
  • U.S. immigration policy
  • citizenship theory
  • refugees


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