Temporal influences on image change

William C. Gartner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

167 Scopus citations


Hunt (1971) defines state image as the impressions that a person or persons hold about a state in which they do not reside. But image is more complex than a single perception, for Brand identification as well as people's perceptions of attributes of various activities or attractions within an area will interact to form a composite state image. Research into such images is a basis for product positioning of a state's various attractions or activities against other regions. The effects of temporal influences on image change may have consequences for product positioning. Within the limits of this research design, very little image change was seen to result from short-term seasonal differences. However, the minor changes noted were in the hypothesized direction, leading to the conclusion that further research should be conducted on image change as a result of temporal influences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)635-644
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Tourism Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1986


  • activities
  • attractions
  • brand identity
  • image
  • recreation
  • temporal influences


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