Objective: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder, but seizure recordings are usually obtained in the acute setting. The chronic behavior of seizures and the interictal bursts that sometimes initiate them is unknown. We investigate the variability of these electrographic patterns over an extended period of time using chronic intracranial recordings in canine epilepsy. Methods: Continuous, yearlong intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings from four dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were analyzed for seizures and interictal bursts. Following automated detection and clinician verification of interictal bursts and seizures, temporal trends of seizures, burst count, and burst–burst similarities were determined. One dog developed status epilepticus, the recordings of which were also investigated. Results: Multiple seizure types, determined by onset channels, were observed in each dog, with significant temporal variation between types. The first 14 days of invasive recording, analogous to the average duration of clinical invasive recordings in humans, did not capture the entirety of seizure types. Seizures typically occurred in clusters, and isolated seizures were rare. The count and dynamics of interictal bursts form distinct groups and do not stabilize until several weeks after implantation. Significance: There is significant temporal variability in seizures and interictal bursts after electrode implantation that requires several weeks to reach steady state. These findings, comparable to those reported in humans implanted with the NeuroPace Responsive Neurostimulator System (RNS) device, suggest that transient network changes following electrode implantation may need to be taken into account when interpreting or analyzing iEEG during evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Chronic, ambulatory iEEG may be better suited to accurately map epileptic networks in appropriate individuals.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Mirowski Family Foundation grants through the University of Pennsylvania and Mayo Clinic: NIH P20NS 080181, U01NS073557, and P40OD10939. The International Epilepsy Electrophysiology Portal is funded by the NIH (U24NS063930).