Tempering improves flour properties of refined intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)

Catrin Tyl, Radhika Bharathi, Tonya C Schoenfuss, George Annor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate wheatgrass flour properties, namely composition, color, solvent retention capacity, starch damage, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Changes in flour attributes were evaluated via a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, with factors targeting moisture (comparing un-tempered controls to samples of 12% and 14% target moisture), time (4, 8, and 24 h), and temperature (30 and 45 °C). All investigated parameters were significantly affected by target moisture; however, samples tempered to 12% moisture showed few differences to those tempered to 14%. Similarly, neither tempering time nor temperature exerted pronounced effects on most flour properties, indicating water uptake was fast and not dependent on temperature within the investigated range. Lactic acid retention capacity significantly correlated with ash (r = -0.739, p < 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (r = -0.746, p < 0.01), polyphenol oxidase activity (r = -0.710, p < 0.01), starch content (r = 0.841, p < 0.01), and starch damage (r = 0.842, p < 0.01), but not with protein (r = 0.357, p > 0.05). In general, tempering resulted in flour with less bran contamination but only minor losses in protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number337
JournalFoods
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Thinopyrum intermedium
Thinopyrum intermedium subsp. intermedium
tempering
Flour
flour
environmental pollution
agricultural product
damages
Temperature
water
debranning
Catechol Oxidase
temperature
protein depletion
bran
catechol oxidase
Starch
ecosystem services
water uptake
lactic acid

Keywords

  • bran
  • Flour refinement
  • Intermediate wheatgrass
  • Sustainability
  • Tempering

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

Cite this

Tempering improves flour properties of refined intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium). / Tyl, Catrin; Bharathi, Radhika; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Annor, George.

In: Foods, Vol. 8, No. 8, 337, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ec944ee0f6834b1ea47436e02514c388,
title = "Tempering improves flour properties of refined intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)",
abstract = "Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate wheatgrass flour properties, namely composition, color, solvent retention capacity, starch damage, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Changes in flour attributes were evaluated via a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, with factors targeting moisture (comparing un-tempered controls to samples of 12{\%} and 14{\%} target moisture), time (4, 8, and 24 h), and temperature (30 and 45 °C). All investigated parameters were significantly affected by target moisture; however, samples tempered to 12{\%} moisture showed few differences to those tempered to 14{\%}. Similarly, neither tempering time nor temperature exerted pronounced effects on most flour properties, indicating water uptake was fast and not dependent on temperature within the investigated range. Lactic acid retention capacity significantly correlated with ash (r = -0.739, p < 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (r = -0.746, p < 0.01), polyphenol oxidase activity (r = -0.710, p < 0.01), starch content (r = 0.841, p < 0.01), and starch damage (r = 0.842, p < 0.01), but not with protein (r = 0.357, p > 0.05). In general, tempering resulted in flour with less bran contamination but only minor losses in protein.",
keywords = "bran, Flour refinement, Intermediate wheatgrass, Sustainability, Tempering",
author = "Catrin Tyl and Radhika Bharathi and Schoenfuss, {Tonya C} and George Annor",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/foods8080337",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
journal = "Foods",
issn = "2304-8158",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tempering improves flour properties of refined intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)

AU - Tyl, Catrin

AU - Bharathi, Radhika

AU - Schoenfuss, Tonya C

AU - Annor, George

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate wheatgrass flour properties, namely composition, color, solvent retention capacity, starch damage, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Changes in flour attributes were evaluated via a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, with factors targeting moisture (comparing un-tempered controls to samples of 12% and 14% target moisture), time (4, 8, and 24 h), and temperature (30 and 45 °C). All investigated parameters were significantly affected by target moisture; however, samples tempered to 12% moisture showed few differences to those tempered to 14%. Similarly, neither tempering time nor temperature exerted pronounced effects on most flour properties, indicating water uptake was fast and not dependent on temperature within the investigated range. Lactic acid retention capacity significantly correlated with ash (r = -0.739, p < 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (r = -0.746, p < 0.01), polyphenol oxidase activity (r = -0.710, p < 0.01), starch content (r = 0.841, p < 0.01), and starch damage (r = 0.842, p < 0.01), but not with protein (r = 0.357, p > 0.05). In general, tempering resulted in flour with less bran contamination but only minor losses in protein.

AB - Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate wheatgrass flour properties, namely composition, color, solvent retention capacity, starch damage, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Changes in flour attributes were evaluated via a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, with factors targeting moisture (comparing un-tempered controls to samples of 12% and 14% target moisture), time (4, 8, and 24 h), and temperature (30 and 45 °C). All investigated parameters were significantly affected by target moisture; however, samples tempered to 12% moisture showed few differences to those tempered to 14%. Similarly, neither tempering time nor temperature exerted pronounced effects on most flour properties, indicating water uptake was fast and not dependent on temperature within the investigated range. Lactic acid retention capacity significantly correlated with ash (r = -0.739, p < 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (r = -0.746, p < 0.01), polyphenol oxidase activity (r = -0.710, p < 0.01), starch content (r = 0.841, p < 0.01), and starch damage (r = 0.842, p < 0.01), but not with protein (r = 0.357, p > 0.05). In general, tempering resulted in flour with less bran contamination but only minor losses in protein.

KW - bran

KW - Flour refinement

KW - Intermediate wheatgrass

KW - Sustainability

KW - Tempering

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85070891376&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85070891376&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/foods8080337

DO - 10.3390/foods8080337

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Foods

JF - Foods

SN - 2304-8158

IS - 8

M1 - 337

ER -