The chapter introduces practical methods to sample and study living and fossil marine and non-marine ostracods. Special emphasis is given to sample processing and the analysis of ostracod data. Finally we deal with laboratory culturing methods. Both qualitative and quantitative sampling methods and sampling strategies are recommended and several effective techniques are described. Protocols for preservation of samples containing ostracods and further for extraction of the latter are presented. Special emphasis is given to sub-sampling techniques and to the preparation of ostracods for analysis of species assemblages and geochemical analysis of the valves. The data-analysis section reviews information on the distribution of species abundances, on the adult-juvenile ratios and their usefulness for ecological and palaeoecological interpretation, on adult sex ratios, on the seasonal variation in carapace size, on the preservation state of the ostracod valves and on the application of morphometric analysis to the ostracod carapace shape. The last part deals with laboratory culturing ostracods. It is shown why culturing ostracods is important and how one can start and maintain for long periods batches and/or single specimen cultures of both marine and non-marine ostracods.