Background and Aims: Gastroparesis is a symptomatic chronic disorder of the stomach characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Several endoscopic treatment modalities have been described that aim to improve gastric emptying and/or symptoms associated with gastroparesis refractory to dietary and pharmacologic management. Methods: In this report we review devices and techniques for endoscopic treatment of gastroparesis, the evidence regarding their efficacy and safety, and the financial considerations for their use. Results: Endoscopic modalities for treatment of gastroparesis can be broadly categorized into pyloric, nonpyloric, and nutritional therapies. Pyloric therapies such as botulinum toxin injection, stent placement, pyloroplasty, and pyloromyotomy specifically focus on pylorospasm as a therapeutic target. These interventions aim to reduce the pressure gradient across the pyloric sphincter, with a resultant improvement in gastric emptying. Nonpyloric therapies, such as venting gastrostomy and gastric electrical stimulation, are intended to improve symptoms. Nutritional therapies, such as feeding tube placement, aim to provide nutritional support. Conclusions: Several endoscopic interventions have shown utility in improving the quality of life and symptoms of select patients with refractory gastroparesis. Methods to identify which patients are best suited for a specific treatment are not well established. Endoscopic pyloromyotomy is a relatively recent development that may prove to be the preferred pyloric-directed intervention, although additional and longer-term outcomes are needed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr. Parsi’s time to develop this manuscript was supported by The Louisiana Board of Regents Endowed Chair for Eminent Scholars and C. Thorpe Ray, MD endowed chair in Medicine.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Practice Guideline