Teaching letter sounds to kindergarten English language learners using incremental rehearsal

Meredith Peterson, Dana Brandes, Amy K Kunkel, Jennifer Wilson, Naomi L. Rahn, Andrea Egan, Jennifer McComas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Proficiency in letter-sound correspondence is important for decoding connected text. This study examined the effects of an evidence-based intervention, incremental rehearsal (IR), on the letter-sound expression of three kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) performing below the district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Participants were native speakers of Hmong, Spanish, and Polish. A multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effects of IR on letter-sound expression. Visual analysis of the data showed an increase in level and trend when IR was introduced in each phase. Percentage of all non-overlapping data (PAND) ranged from 95% to 100%. All participants exceeded expected growth and reached the spring district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Results suggest that IR is a promising intervention for increasing letter-sound expression for ELLs who evidence delays in acquiring letter sounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-107
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of school psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This publication was made possible in part by Grant Number H325D090012 from the United States Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs . Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USDE OSEP.


  • English language learners (ELLs)
  • Incremental rehearsal
  • Intervention
  • Kindergarten
  • Letter sounds


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