Teachers in developing countries

Paul Glewwe, Rongjia Shen, Bixuan Sun, Suzanne Wisniewski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter reviews rigorous high-quality evaluations of teaching and teacher interventions in developing countries. Teachers can have large impacts on student learning in both developed and developing countries (see Azam & Kingdon, 2015, and the references therein). This review focuses on three main questions: (1) What teaching, teacher and pedagogical policies increase students' time spent in school, as measured by student enrollment, attendance, dropout rates and completed years of schooling? (2) What teaching, teacher and pedagogical policies and programs increase student learning as measured by test scores? and (3) What policies lead to improved teacher outcomes, such as teachers' time in school, attitudes, and pedagogical practices?.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Economics of Education
Subtitle of host publicationA Comprehensive Overview
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9780081026458
ISBN (Print)9780128153918
StatePublished - Jan 20 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Bruns, Costa, and Cunha (2017) evaluated a program that provided secondary schools in Brazil with classroom observation feedback and expert coaching. Teachers received feedback from classroom observers on time use and student engagement. Self-help materials were provided to the principal pedagogical coordinator and to teachers, and the pedagogical coordinator received expert coaching. The program provided no direct training, rather teachers were supported by the school's pedagogical coordinator (who received coaching). Regarding impact, grade 10 students performed 0.5–0.8σ higher on math and Portuguese tests and 0.6σ higher on grade 12 Portuguese tests. The authors also found that teachers changed their allocation of classroom time (see Section Governance interventions ).


  • Developing countries
  • Educational outcomes
  • Impact evaluations
  • Pedagogy
  • School governance
  • School inputs

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Teachers in developing countries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this