Using data from 1700 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade students followed longitudinally across the school year, we tested the extent to which time-specific, within-person shifts in peer victimization and children's overall victimization trajectories were predicted by the quality of their relationships with their teacher and their friendship status. We found that both teacher-child relationships and friendships were uniquely associated with children's levels of victimization over time, but the magnitude (and direction) of the effects varied depending on whether within- or between-person differences in victimization were considered. Children who evinced more positive teacher-child relationships (on average) reported lower levels of victimization. This relation did not vary over time. Similarly, children with a greater number of friends tended to be victimized less–again, irrespective of time. In contrast, within-person increases in teacher-child relationship quality in early fall were associated with contemporaneous increases in victimization. No within-person effects of friendship were evident.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants to the third author from the Institute of Education Sciences (# R305A100344 ) and from the William T. Grant and Spencer Foundations (# 200900174 ). We are grateful to the children, teachers, and school principals who participated and contributed to this project.
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.
- Peer victimization
- Teacher-child relationships