The average rate of long-term tobacco abstinence in a general population of treatment-seeking tobacco users is about 25%. Most of these treatments tend to use generic approaches, although the population of tobacco users is quite heterogeneous. It is entirely possible that special populations of smokers have specific treatment needs. If these needs are addressed, then treatment success may be augmented. This paper will review different issues that may surface when treating special populations. The special populations to be examined will be broken down by gender, age and route of tobacco administration. In addition, gaps in the scientific literature and directions for future research will be discussed. Once population-specific treatment needs are identified, then the effects of tailored treatments in augmenting treatment success can be determined.