Targeted genome editing for the correction or alleviation of primary Immunodeficiencies

Christopher J. Sipe, Patricia N. Claudio Vázquez, Joseph G. Skeate, R. Scott McIvor, Branden S. Moriarity

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a growing list of unique disorders that result in a failure of the innate/adaptive immune systems to fully respond to disease or infection. PIDs are classified into five broad categories; B cell disorders, combined B and T cell disorders, phagocytic disorders, complement disorders, and disorders with recurrent fevers and inflammation. Many of these disorders, such as X-SCID, WAS, and CGD lead to early death in children if intervention is not implemented. At present, the predominant method of curative therapy remains an allogeneic transplant from a healthy donor, however many complications and limitations exist with his therapy such as availability of donors, graft vs host disease, graft rejection, and infection. More recently, gene therapy using viral based complementation vectors have successfully been implemented to functionally correct patient cells in an autologous transplant, but these methods carry significant risks, including insertional mutagenesis, and provide non-physiological gene expression. For these reasons, gene-editing reagents such as targeted nucleases, base editors (BE), and prime editors (PE) are being explored. The BE and PE tools, sometimes referred to as digital editors, are of very high interest as they provide both enhanced molecular specificity and do not rely on DNA repair pathways after DSBs to change individual base pairs or directly replace DNA sequences responsible for pathogenic phenotypes. With this in mind the purpose of this chapter is to highlight some of the most common PIDs found within the human population, discuss successes and shortcomings of previous intervention strategies, and highlight how the next generation of gene-editing tools may be deployed to directly repair the underlying genetic causes of this class of disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProgress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
PublisherElsevier B.V.
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Publication series

NameProgress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
ISSN (Print)1877-1173
ISSN (Electronic)1878-0814

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • Base editor
  • Gene therapy
  • Primary immunodeficiencies
  • Prime editor
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Targeted genome editing
  • X-SCID

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