The effects of early-life iron deficiency anemia (IDA) extend past the blood and include both short- and long-term adverse effects on many tissues including the brain. Prior to IDA, iron deficiency (ID) can cause similar tissue effects, but a sensitive biomarker of iron-dependent brain health is lacking. To determine serum and CSF biomarkers of ID-induced metabolic dysfunction we performed proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serum and CSF at 4- and 6- months from a nonhuman primate model of infantile IDA. LC/MS/MS analyses identified a total of 227 metabolites and 205 proteins in serum. In CSF, we measured 210 metabolites and 1,560 proteins. Data were either processed from a Q-Exactive (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) through Progenesis QI with accurate mass and retention time comparisons to a proprietary small molecule database and Metlin or with raw files imported directly from a Fusion Orbitrap (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) through Sequest in Proteome Discoverer 184.108.40.2065 (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) with peptide matches through the latest Rhesus Macaque HMDB database. Metabolite and protein identifiers, p-values, and q-values were utilized for molecular pathway analysis with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). We applied multiway distance weighted discrimination (DWD) to identify a weighted sum of the features (proteins or metabolites) that distinguish ID from IS at 4-months (pre-anemic period) and 6-months of age (anemic).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by grants NIHR01HD089989, NIHR01HD080201, NIHR01HD057064, NIGMSR01GM130622, and NIHR01HD39386. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
- Rhesus Macaque
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article