Systemic GM-CSF recruits effector T cells into the tumor microenvironment in localized prostate cancer

Xiao X. Wei, Stephen Chan, Serena Kwek, Jera Lewis, Vinh Dao, Li Zhang, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Charles J. Ryan, Amy M. Lin, Terence W. Friedlander, Brian Rini, Christopher Kane, Jeffry P. Simko, Peter R. Carroll, Eric J. Small, Lawrence Fong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Granulocytic-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) is used as an adjuvant in cancer vaccine trials and has the potential to enhance antitumor efficacy with immunotherapy; however, its immunologic effects are not fully understood. Here, we report results from a phase I study of neoadjuvant GM-CSF in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. Patients received subcutaneous injections of GM-CSF (250 mg/m2/day) daily for 2 weeks (cohort 1; n = 6), 3 weeks (cohort 2; n = 6), or 4 weeks (cohort 3; n = 6). Treatment was well tolerated with all grade 1 or 2 adverse events. Two patients had a decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of more than 50%. GMCSF treatment increased the numbers of circulating mature myeloid dendritic cells, proliferating conventional CD4 T cells, proliferating CD8 T cells, and to a lesser magnitude FoxP3+ regulatory CD4 T cells. Although GM-CSF treatment did not augment antigen-presenting cell localization to the prostate, treatment was associated with recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the tumor. These results suggest that systemic GM-CSF can modulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)948-958
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Immunology Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.


Dive into the research topics of 'Systemic GM-CSF recruits effector T cells into the tumor microenvironment in localized prostate cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this