Granulocytic-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) is used as an adjuvant in cancer vaccine trials and has the potential to enhance antitumor efficacy with immunotherapy; however, its immunologic effects are not fully understood. Here, we report results from a phase I study of neoadjuvant GM-CSF in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. Patients received subcutaneous injections of GM-CSF (250 mg/m2/day) daily for 2 weeks (cohort 1; n = 6), 3 weeks (cohort 2; n = 6), or 4 weeks (cohort 3; n = 6). Treatment was well tolerated with all grade 1 or 2 adverse events. Two patients had a decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of more than 50%. GMCSF treatment increased the numbers of circulating mature myeloid dendritic cells, proliferating conventional CD4 T cells, proliferating CD8 T cells, and to a lesser magnitude FoxP3+ regulatory CD4 T cells. Although GM-CSF treatment did not augment antigen-presenting cell localization to the prostate, treatment was associated with recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the tumor. These results suggest that systemic GM-CSF can modulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment.
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© 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.