Systematics of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae): Historical review, new species and phylogeny

Fabio Laurindo da Silva, Leonard C. Ferrington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Non-biting midges of the genus Pentaneura are small dipterans with larvae inhabiting in a variety of aquatic systems. Despite the wide geographical and ecological range, the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the genus remains scarcely understood. Here, the taxonomy of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) is revised. Except for Pentaneura indecisa (Williston, 1896), diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic keys are provided for all previously described species, P. cinerea (Philippi, 1866), P. elisae Fittkau, 1962, P. inconspicua (Malloch, 1915), P. inoyensis Sublette, 1964 and P. vittaria Sublette and Sasa, 1994. Additionally, three new species are described: P. manueli Silva sp. nov. (Brazil), P. neusae Silva sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and P. waniae Silva sp. nov. (United States). We also present the first phylogenetic analysis of Pentaneura based on morphological data. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 61 morphological traits from 25 species, including genera belonging to the nine currently recognized Tanypodinae tribes (Anatopyniini, Clinotanypodini, Coelopyniini, Fittkauimyiini, Macropelopiini, Natarsiini, Pentaneurini, Procladiini and Tanypodini) and all the species within Pentaneura but P. indecisa. We examine the effects of implied weighting by reanalyzing the data with varying values of concavity constant (k). Our analysis supports the monophyly of Pentaneura based on two synapomorphies, in a wide range of weighting factors. Under these conditions, the genus is recovered sister to Parapentaneura, and these as sister to Hudsonimyia. The proposition of the internal phylogenetic structure in Pentaneura is refrained, as no obvious group-forming character was identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-89
Number of pages30
JournalZoologischer Anzeiger
Volume274
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2018

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Chironomidae
taxonomy
new species
phylogeny
Vittaria
Sasa
taxonomic keys
Costa Rica
monophyly
Brazil
larvae

Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • Nearctic
  • Neotropical
  • Pentaneurini
  • Phylogenetic relationships
  • Systematics
  • Tanypodinae

Cite this

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title = "Systematics of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae): Historical review, new species and phylogeny",
abstract = "Non-biting midges of the genus Pentaneura are small dipterans with larvae inhabiting in a variety of aquatic systems. Despite the wide geographical and ecological range, the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the genus remains scarcely understood. Here, the taxonomy of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) is revised. Except for Pentaneura indecisa (Williston, 1896), diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic keys are provided for all previously described species, P. cinerea (Philippi, 1866), P. elisae Fittkau, 1962, P. inconspicua (Malloch, 1915), P. inoyensis Sublette, 1964 and P. vittaria Sublette and Sasa, 1994. Additionally, three new species are described: P. manueli Silva sp. nov. (Brazil), P. neusae Silva sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and P. waniae Silva sp. nov. (United States). We also present the first phylogenetic analysis of Pentaneura based on morphological data. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 61 morphological traits from 25 species, including genera belonging to the nine currently recognized Tanypodinae tribes (Anatopyniini, Clinotanypodini, Coelopyniini, Fittkauimyiini, Macropelopiini, Natarsiini, Pentaneurini, Procladiini and Tanypodini) and all the species within Pentaneura but P. indecisa. We examine the effects of implied weighting by reanalyzing the data with varying values of concavity constant (k). Our analysis supports the monophyly of Pentaneura based on two synapomorphies, in a wide range of weighting factors. Under these conditions, the genus is recovered sister to Parapentaneura, and these as sister to Hudsonimyia. The proposition of the internal phylogenetic structure in Pentaneura is refrained, as no obvious group-forming character was identified.",
keywords = "Biodiversity, Nearctic, Neotropical, Pentaneurini, Phylogenetic relationships, Systematics, Tanypodinae",
author = "Silva, {Fabio Laurindo da} and Ferrington, {Leonard C.}",
year = "2018",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Systematics of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera

T2 - Chironomidae: Tanypodinae): Historical review, new species and phylogeny

AU - Silva, Fabio Laurindo da

AU - Ferrington, Leonard C.

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Non-biting midges of the genus Pentaneura are small dipterans with larvae inhabiting in a variety of aquatic systems. Despite the wide geographical and ecological range, the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the genus remains scarcely understood. Here, the taxonomy of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) is revised. Except for Pentaneura indecisa (Williston, 1896), diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic keys are provided for all previously described species, P. cinerea (Philippi, 1866), P. elisae Fittkau, 1962, P. inconspicua (Malloch, 1915), P. inoyensis Sublette, 1964 and P. vittaria Sublette and Sasa, 1994. Additionally, three new species are described: P. manueli Silva sp. nov. (Brazil), P. neusae Silva sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and P. waniae Silva sp. nov. (United States). We also present the first phylogenetic analysis of Pentaneura based on morphological data. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 61 morphological traits from 25 species, including genera belonging to the nine currently recognized Tanypodinae tribes (Anatopyniini, Clinotanypodini, Coelopyniini, Fittkauimyiini, Macropelopiini, Natarsiini, Pentaneurini, Procladiini and Tanypodini) and all the species within Pentaneura but P. indecisa. We examine the effects of implied weighting by reanalyzing the data with varying values of concavity constant (k). Our analysis supports the monophyly of Pentaneura based on two synapomorphies, in a wide range of weighting factors. Under these conditions, the genus is recovered sister to Parapentaneura, and these as sister to Hudsonimyia. The proposition of the internal phylogenetic structure in Pentaneura is refrained, as no obvious group-forming character was identified.

AB - Non-biting midges of the genus Pentaneura are small dipterans with larvae inhabiting in a variety of aquatic systems. Despite the wide geographical and ecological range, the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the genus remains scarcely understood. Here, the taxonomy of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) is revised. Except for Pentaneura indecisa (Williston, 1896), diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic keys are provided for all previously described species, P. cinerea (Philippi, 1866), P. elisae Fittkau, 1962, P. inconspicua (Malloch, 1915), P. inoyensis Sublette, 1964 and P. vittaria Sublette and Sasa, 1994. Additionally, three new species are described: P. manueli Silva sp. nov. (Brazil), P. neusae Silva sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and P. waniae Silva sp. nov. (United States). We also present the first phylogenetic analysis of Pentaneura based on morphological data. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 61 morphological traits from 25 species, including genera belonging to the nine currently recognized Tanypodinae tribes (Anatopyniini, Clinotanypodini, Coelopyniini, Fittkauimyiini, Macropelopiini, Natarsiini, Pentaneurini, Procladiini and Tanypodini) and all the species within Pentaneura but P. indecisa. We examine the effects of implied weighting by reanalyzing the data with varying values of concavity constant (k). Our analysis supports the monophyly of Pentaneura based on two synapomorphies, in a wide range of weighting factors. Under these conditions, the genus is recovered sister to Parapentaneura, and these as sister to Hudsonimyia. The proposition of the internal phylogenetic structure in Pentaneura is refrained, as no obvious group-forming character was identified.

KW - Biodiversity

KW - Nearctic

KW - Neotropical

KW - Pentaneurini

KW - Phylogenetic relationships

KW - Systematics

KW - Tanypodinae

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