Non-biting midges of the genus Pentaneura are small dipterans with larvae inhabiting in a variety of aquatic systems. Despite the wide geographical and ecological range, the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the genus remains scarcely understood. Here, the taxonomy of the new world genus Pentaneura Phillip (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) is revised. Except for Pentaneura indecisa (Williston, 1896), diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic keys are provided for all previously described species, P. cinerea (Philippi, 1866), P. elisae Fittkau, 1962, P. inconspicua (Malloch, 1915), P. inoyensis Sublette, 1964 and P. vittaria Sublette and Sasa, 1994. Additionally, three new species are described: P. manueli Silva sp. nov. (Brazil), P. neusae Silva sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and P. waniae Silva sp. nov. (United States). We also present the first phylogenetic analysis of Pentaneura based on morphological data. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 61 morphological traits from 25 species, including genera belonging to the nine currently recognized Tanypodinae tribes (Anatopyniini, Clinotanypodini, Coelopyniini, Fittkauimyiini, Macropelopiini, Natarsiini, Pentaneurini, Procladiini and Tanypodini) and all the species within Pentaneura but P. indecisa. We examine the effects of implied weighting by reanalyzing the data with varying values of concavity constant (k). Our analysis supports the monophyly of Pentaneura based on two synapomorphies, in a wide range of weighting factors. Under these conditions, the genus is recovered sister to Parapentaneura, and these as sister to Hudsonimyia. The proposition of the internal phylogenetic structure in Pentaneura is refrained, as no obvious group-forming character was identified.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Chris Dietrich (INHS), Dave Furth (USNM), Duncan Sivell (BMNH), Janice Peters (FAMU), Jason Weintraub (ANSP), Martin Spies (ZSM), Robin Thomson (UMSP), Tommy McElrath (INHS) and Torsten Dikow (USNM) for arranging loans of specimens. Thanks also go to Carolina S.N. Oliveira, Sofia Wiedenbrug and Susana Trivinho Strixino for providing us with important material. We very much appreciate Silvio S. Nihei and Rogério Campos de Oliveira for comments on the phylogenetic analysis. F. L. Silva received financial support from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, proc. 9239-13-8 ) and São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, proc. 2016/07039-8 ).
- Phylogenetic relationships