Within a community-wide heart disease prevention effort, it was hypothesized that personalized risk factor screening and education would result in modified health behaviors and reduced risk factor levels for coronary heart disease. Adults from a population sample were randomized to a community-wide screening and education program or were excluded from that program for 1 year. At the end of that year, both groups were measured for risk factor levels and related health behaviors. Those who received the screening and education program had significantly lower risk factor levels and other evidence of health behavior change, including lower blood cholesterol (206.9 vs 211.5 mg/dl), lower diastolic blood pressure (68.7 vs 70.0 mm Hg), lower resting heart rate (71.4 vs 72.7 bpm), and increased selection of low-fat and low-sodium meals in local restaurants. These data suggest that systematic risk factor screening and education may result in lower population risk for coronary heart disease.