Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Knowledge Attitude and Practices on African Animal Trypanocide Resistance

Keneth Iceland Kasozi, Ewan Thomas MacLeod, Charles Waiswa, Michael Mahero, Ibrahim Ntulume, Susan Christina Welburn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: African trypanocide resistance is an emerging public health emergency whose control requires a revisit on farmer’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices in developing countries. African animal trypanocide resistance (AATr) is rife in an environment where drug use and policy decisions are disjointed. The objective of the study was to identify community factors responsible for the development of AATr. This was important since diminazene aceturate (DA), isometamidium chloride (ISM), and homidium bromide (HB) have existed for over 30 years and no new drugs have been provided to farmers. Methods: An electronic keyword search across 12 databases was conducted using a search criterion from 1806 to June 2022. This generated a total of 24 publications, but after removing duplicates, review articles, and nonrelated articles, a total of eight papers were included in the analysis by following the PRISMA checklist. A meta-analysis was conducted on the data extracted and the risk ratio and inverse variance at 95% confidence interval were calculated using RevMan®. Results: All the eight articles in the study showed that DA was the most preferred trypanocide in both West and Eastern Africa. Poor farmer knowledge of AATr and limited drug options were major drivers for trypanocide resistance. In addition, farmer treatments, use of untrained personnel, poor administration, poor dosing, and preparation of trypanocides were major drivers for the development of AATr and similarities were identified in DA and ISM practices (P = 0.13). Conclusions: AATr is spread in developing countries due to a lack of community knowledge, attitudes, and drug-use practices. This situation could be reversed through interdisciplinary collaborations in endemic communities by promoting effective treatments and responsible drug handling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number205
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Global Health Research Programme (16/136/33) using UK aid from the UK government. This work was also supported by the Zhejiang University Education Foundation Emergency Research Fund, the Global Challenges Research Fund, and the University of Edinburgh (S.C.W. and K.I.K.). The work was also funded by the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission (grant ID number: UGCS-2021-447) in the UK (K.I.K.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • AATr
  • animal African trypanosomiasis
  • community practices attitudes and practices
  • global health
  • human African trypanosomiasis
  • one health
  • trypanocide resistance
  • trypanosomiasis

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


Dive into the research topics of 'Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Knowledge Attitude and Practices on African Animal Trypanocide Resistance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this