Good calving management should not only ease the transition of cows into lactation, but also contribute to providing healthy replacement animals for the herd. Difficulty during parturition has been found to be detrimental to the offspring. Because of the association of obstetrical intervention with undesirable outcomes, the general management recommendation for calving is to let cows give birth unassisted whenever possible. Unfortunately, very few studies have investigated the effects of planned early assistance during calving, regardless of whether or not another problem exists. To investigate the effects of early assistance during apparently normal calvings, a clinical trial was conducted on 257 Holstein cows. They were observed through the second stage of calving, and before calving they were divided randomly between 2 assigned interventions: not assisted or early assistance during the second stage of parturition. After calving, the animals were classified into 4 actual calving intervention groups: too quick to be assisted, not assisted, early assistance, and late assistance (for cows in the not assisted group that did not calve unassisted within the 1 h maximum time allowed). Early assistance was given 15 min after first sight of both front hooves of the calf and done using human force only. Heifer calves (n = 129) born from enrolled dams were followed until weaning to assess the effect of assigned and actual calving interventions on their growth, health, and survival. Heifer calves’ weight at birth was positively associated with weight at 7 wk, but the effect varied by assigned and actual intervention. As a routine management practice, giving early assistance during calving to dairy cows did not influence average daily gain, health, or survival in dairy heifer calves up to weaning at 7 wk of age.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support was provided by Valacta Inc . (Montréal, QC, Canada), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Ottawa, ON, Canada), the Ontario Veterinary College (Guelph, ON, Canada) and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Guelph, ON, Canada). The authors also thank Ken Leslie (University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada) for his support with the planning of this experiment and the owners (John Vrieze and Brittany Vrieze) and staff (Rolando Juarez, Antonio Oncha, Alejo Gonzalez, Anselmo Ayohua, Nicolas Quechulpa, Juan Quechulpa, Pedro Galvan, and Jacob Flores) at Emerald Dairy II/Calf-A (Emerald, WI). Without their constant assistance and support, the completion of this study would have been impossible.
© 2017 American Dairy Science Association
Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- calf survival
- calving assistance