Two-dimensional graphene materials attracted much attention worldwide because of their superior performance in electronic devices, sensors, and energy storage. However, its application is limited by high cost and insufficient production. The work to find out a simple and environmentally friendly process is highly needed. Designed pyrolysis of biomass precursors can derive graphene-like materials. This review summarizes some typical preparation processes for graphene-like materials synthesis from biomass carbonization via pyrolysis, including salt-based activation, chemical blowing, template-based confinement, coupling with hydrothermal carbonization pretreatment, post exfoliation, and some other methods. The operation of these methods and the performance of obtained graphene-like materials were closely highlighted. The scalability of the techniques and the applications of the biomass graphene-like carbon were also discussed. Some advanced characterization methods, such as SEM, TEM, AFM, Raman, and XPS to determine the graphene-like structure and graphitization degree were also discussed. In the end, some current challenges and future perspectives of the synthesis of these graphene-like materials were concluded.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by The Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2016-67021-24533 and 2018-67009-27904 from the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture. X. Kong thanks to the Natural Science Foundation in Jiangsu Province ( BK20170707 ) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 21802073 ). Y. Zhu acknowledges support from the DOE BES program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ( PNNL ) (Transdisciplinary Approaches to Realize Novel Catalytic Pathways to Energy Carriers, FWP 47319).