Synthesis and properties of an acetaldehyde-derived oligonucleotide interstrand cross-link

Yanbin Lao, Stephen S. Hecht

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Acetaldehyde (AA), occurring widely in the human environment, is a mutagen and carcinogen. AA can react with DNA to form AA-DNA adducts. Several types of adducts, including an interstrand cross-link 3-(2-deoxyribos-1-yl)-5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-8-(N2-deoxyguanosyl)-6-methyl-pyrimido[1,2-α]purine- 10(3H)one (7), have been previously characterized by our laboratory. We hypothesize that cross-link 7 may be involved in determining the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of AA. To address this question, the double-stranded oligonucleotide 13, bearing cross-link 7, was synthesized in a sequence appropriate for mutagenicity studies in human cells. Oligonucleotide 9, containing 2-fluoro-O6-(trimethylsilylethyl)deoxyinosine (dIno), was reacted with 4-amino-1,2-pentanediol, followed by treatment with NaIO 4. The resulting oligonucleotide 11 containing the 1,N 2-propano-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) 5 was incubated with the complementary oligonucleotide 12 to give the desired cross-link 13, which was characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) and enzymatic hydrolysis to cross-link 7. The formation of cross-link 13 at 5′-CpG-3′ was confirmed by incubation of 11 with [15N5] 12 containing a 5′-Cp[ 15N5]G-3′ sequence. The formation of cross-link 13 was reversible. Therefore, oligonucleotide 24 containing the irreversible analogue of cross-link 7, l,3-bis(2′-deoxyguanos-N2-yl)butane, was synthesized for use as a control in the mutagenicity studies. Oligonucleotide 21 was reacted with 1,3-diaminobutane dihydrochloride, followed by incubation with the complementary oligonucleotide 23, to give 24. To determine the optimum distance and orientation for cross-link formation, six oligonucleotides, containing 5 at the i + 1, i + 2, and i + 3 or the i - 1, i - 2, and i - 3 positions relative to dGuo in the complementary strand, were 5′-end labeled with [γ-32P]ATP, followed by incubation of each labeled oligonulceotide with its complementary strand and then analysis by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only the oligonucleotide containing 5́-Cp5-3́ formed the cross-link with the complementary 5́-CpG-3́ sequence. The results of this study confirm the structure of an AA-derived DNA cross-link, supply characterized cross-link-containing oligonucleotides for mutagenicity studies, and provide information on the optimum distance and orientation for cross-link formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)711-721
Number of pages11
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2005


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