Protein and peptide prenylation is an essential biological process involved in many signal transduction pathways. Hence, it plays a critical role in establishing many major human ailments, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), malaria, and Ras-related cancers. Yeast mating pheromone a-factor is a small dodecameric peptide that undergoes prenylation and subsequent processing in a manner identical to larger proteins. Due to its small size in addition to its well-characterized behavior in yeast, a-factor is an attractive model system to study the prenylation pathway. Traditionally, chemical synthesis and characterization of a-factor have been challenging, which has limited its use in prenylation studies. In this chapter, a robust method for the synthesis of a-factor is presented along with a description of the characterization of the peptide using MALDI and NMR. Finally, complete assignments of resonances from the isoprenoid moiety and a-factor from COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and long-range HMBC NMR spectra are presented. This methodology should be useful for the synthesis and characterization of other mature prenylated peptides and proteins.