Based on the discovery of β-D-2′-deoxy-2′-fluorocytidine as a potent anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agent, a series of β-D- and L-2′-deoxy-2′-fluororibonucleosides with modifications at 5 and/or 4 positions were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro activity against HCV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The introduction of the 2′-fluoro group was achieved by either fluorination of 2,2′-anhydronucleosides with hydrogen fluoride-pyridine or potassium fluoride, or a fluorination of arabinonucleosides with DAST. Among the 27 analogues synthesized, only the 5-fluoro compounds, namely β-D-2′- deoxy-2′,5-difluorocytidine (5), had anti-HCV activity in the subgenomic HCV replicon cell line, and inhibitory activity against ribosomal RNA. As β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) had previously shown potent anti-HCV activity, the two functionalities of the N4-hydroxyl and the 2′-fluoro were combined into one molecule, yielding β-D-2′- deoxy-2′-fluoro-N4-hydroxycytidine (12). However, this nucleoside showed neither anti-HCV activity nor toxicity. All the L-forms of the analogues were devoid of anti-HCV activity. None of the compounds showed anti-BVDV activity, suggesting that the BVDV system cannot reliably predict anti-HCV activity in vitro.