Hormone refractory prostate cancer poses a huge problem and standard of care chemotherapy has not been very successful. We used a novel strategy to combine properties of 2 well-studied class of compounds (selenium and COX-2 inhibitor) and examined the resulting effectiveness against prostate cancer. Bearing in mind that sulfonamide moiety and pyrazole ring is important for the proapoptotic activity of Celecoxib, we synthesized a selenium derivative, Selenocoxib-1, by modifying Celecoxib at position 3 of the pyrazole ring. The PAIII cells derived from a metastatic prostate tumor that arose spontaneously in a Lobund-Wistar (LW) rat were used to examine the efficacy of Selenocoxib-1 in vitro. In addition, human metastatic prostate cancer cells, PC-3M, were tested for antitumor effect of Selenocoxib-1 in vitro. The IC50 in PAIII and PC-3M cells for Selenocoxib-1 was about 5 μM, while for Celecoxib it was more than 20 μM. Selenocoxib-1 induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the PAIII cells. COX-2 expression in PAIII cells was downregulated by Celecoxib and Selenocoxib-1 at 20 and 5 μM, respectively; the COX-2 activity was, however, not affected by Selenocoxib-1. Following treatment with Selenocoxib-1, PAIII cells resulted in dose-dependent decrease in HIF-1α, p-AKT and Bcl-2 levels. A reduction in weights was observed in subcutaneous tumors produced by PAIII cells pretreated with Selenocoxib-1 as compared to Celecoxib in LW rats. Further, following 1 week Selenocoxib-1 treatment of PAIII tumors resulted in significant reduction of tumor weights. This study demonstrates that Selenocoxib-1 is more effective against prostate cancer than Celecoxib.
- Hormone refractory prostate cancer
- PAIII cells