Radiation exposures from accidents, nuclear detonations or terrorist incidents are unlikely to be homogeneous; however, current biodosimetric approaches are developed and validated primarily in whole-body irradiation models. A workshop was held at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in May 2008 to draw attention to the need for partial-body biodosimetry, to discuss current knowledge, and to identify the gaps to be filled. A panel of international experts and the workshop attendees discussed the requirements and concepts for a path forward. This report addresses eight key areas identified by the Workshop Program Committee for future focus: (1) improved cytogenetics, (2) clinical signs and symptoms, (3) cutaneous bioindicators, (4) organ-specific biomarkers, (5) biophysical markers of dose, (6) integrated diagnostic approaches, (7) confounding factors, and (8) requirements for post-event medical follow-up. For each area, the status, advantages and limitations of existing approaches and suggestions for new directions are presented.