Synopeas maximum Awad & Talamas, sp. nov., the first reported parasitoid associated with the soybean gall midge, Resseliella maxima Gagné, is described based on morphological and molecular data. Parasitoids were reared from soybean stems infested by R. maxima in Minnesota. A phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Synopeas Förster was performed with COI sequences (n=2412) available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD). Phylogenetic and barcode gap analyses suggest 279 Synopeas species in this dataset, with S. maximum sequences forming a monophyletic clade that is distinct from relatives. The Synopeas maximum clade was close to specimens from Canada and the United States, suggesting it is native to North America. We present a taxonomic treatment of S. maximum to facilitate its identification, including comparison to morphologically similar species. This project provides baseline data for further ecological study of R. maxima parasitism, and its management in soybean.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Bruce Potter (University of Minnesota) for assistance collecting field samples, Zoltán Vas (HMNH), Lars Ove Hansen (ZMUN), Rune Bygebjerg (MZLU), Dominique Zimmermann (NHMW), Joe Monks and Andy Polaszek (NHMUK) for providing access to type specimens, and István Mikó (University of New Hampshire) for identifying Aphanogmus specimens. G.M. was supported by a grant secured by R.L.K and A.R.I.L. from the Minnesota Rapid Agricultural Response Fund. J.A. was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Berlin, Germany, project “German Barcode of Life III: Dark Taxa” (FKZ 16LI1901C).
© 2023 Pensoft Publishers. All rights reserved.
- gall midge
- phylogenetic reconstruction