Advances in the adaptation of optical spectroscopy to monitor photo-induced or enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the crystalline state have enabled X-ray crystal structures to be accurately linked with spectroscopically defined intermediates. This, in turn, has led to a deeper understanding of the role protein structural changes play in function. The integration of optical spectroscopy with X-ray crystallography is growing and now extends beyond linking crystal structure to reaction intermediate. Recent examples of this synergy include applications in protein crystallization, X-ray data acquisition, radiation damage, and acquisition of phase information important for structure determination.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
TMR would like to thank Bryan Johnson for helpful discussions. We acknowledge financial support from the National Institutes of Health (GM-66569).