Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major nosocomial pathogen that frequently forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of octyl gallate (OG) in combination with penicillin and bacitracin against S. epidermidis. Antimicrobial synergy was assessed by conducting checkerboard titration assays, and antibiofilm activity was determined with biofilm assays and fluorescence microscopy analysis. The presence of 8 µg/mL of OG increased both the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of penicillin and bacitracin against S. epidermidis. It lowered the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of penicillin by eight-fold and those of bacitracin by four-fold. Moreover, when used with penicillin or bacitracin, OG significantly decreased the level of biofilm production by preventing microcolony formation. Furthermore, OG significantly permeabilized the bacterial cell wall, which may explain its antimicrobial synergy with penicillin and bacitracin. Together, these results demonstrate that OG, a food-grade antioxidant, can be potentially used as a drug potentiator to enhance the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of penicillin and bacitracin against S. epidermidis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work was supported by MnDRIVE (Minnesota’s Discovery, Research, and InnoVation Economy) and by the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program, the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT).
© 2022 by the authors.
- antimicrobial synergy
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article