Synchronizing Nitrogen Fertilization and Planting Date to Improve Resource Use Efficiency, Productivity, and Profitability of Upland Rice

Tajamul Hussain, Hero T. Gollany, Nurda Hussain, Mukhtar Ahmed, Muhammad Tahir, Saowapa Duangpan

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8 Scopus citations


Synchronizing nitrogen (N) fertilization with planting date (PD) could enhance resource use efficiency and profitability of upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) production in Thailand. The objective of the study was to assess upland rice responses to four N fertilization rates (NFRs) and three planting dates. Field experiments were conducted during two growing seasons under four NFRs, no N applied (N 0), 30 (N 30), 60 (N 60), and 90 kg N ha -1 (N 90), and NFR were applied at the initiation of tillering and panicle emergence stages. The planting dates selected were early (PD1), intermedium (PD2), and late planting (PD3) between September and December of each season. The NFRs and planting dates had a significant influence on N uptake, N use efficiency (NUE), crop water productivity, yield and yield attributes, and profitability of upland rice production. A linear relationship among NFRs, agronomic traits of upland rice, N uptake, and crop water productivity was observed, and a significant seasonal effect was indicated. Fertilization at N 90 under PD2 enhanced yields, yield attributes, and grain yields, as well as crop water productivity by 56 and 105% during the second and first seasons, respectively. Grain N, total N, and straw N were increased by 159, 159, and 160%, and by 90, 114, and 153%, during the first and second seasons, respectively. Enhanced N efficiencies, including agronomic efficiency, recovery efficiency, partial factor productivity, and N harvest index, at varying NFRs were observed under PD2 during both seasons. Highly significant ( p < 0.001) and positive associations were observed among agronomic attributes, N uptake, NUE, and crop water productivity of upland rice in correlation assessment. Profitability from grain yields was observed with N fertilization and N 90 resulted in maximum profit under all the PDs. However, the highest marginal benefit-cost ratio was observed at N 60 under PD2 during both seasons. The results suggest that the NFR of 90 kg N ha -1 and planting at the end of September or start of October would enhance resource use efficiency and productivity, and maximize profitability. Furthermore, long-term field investigations with a range of NFRs and adopting forecasting measures to adjust the planting date for upland rice are recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number895811
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
StatePublished - May 18 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University for providing research facilities and also they would like to give sincere appreciation to Pajaree Sonsungsan, researcher, Program in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, for her help in R program.

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the Thailand's Education Hub for the Southern Region of ASEAN countries' (TEH-AC) scholarship from Prince of Songkla University, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) through their Climate, Food and Farming Global Research Alliance Development Scholarship (CLIFF-GRADS) program. CCAFS capability building objectives are carried out with support from CGIAR Trust Fund and through bilateral funding agreements. For details, please visit . Thank you to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service for hosting the first author and to the Government of New Zealand for providing financial support. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. USDA is equal opportunity provider and employer.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Hussain, Gollany, Hussain, Ahmed, Tahir and Duangpan.


  • agronomic management
  • crop water productivity
  • grain yield
  • nitrogen uptake
  • recovery efficiency

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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