A chloride-free environment produces selective changes in the retinal network which include a separation of on and off channels. The identification of chloride-sensitive and insensitive neuronal activity permits identification of some of the connections and intervening polarities of synaptic interactions which are expressed in ganglion cell receptive field organization. These experiments support previous suggestions that surround antagonism is dependent on horizontal cell activity. In addition they suggest a model of the neuronal connections which subserve on-center, off-center, and on-off ganglion cells. Experimental tests of the on-off ganglion cell model favor the idea that this type of ganglion cell receives inhibitory input from amacrine cells and excitatory activation from depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells.