Symbol error probabilities for general cooperative links

Alejandro Ribeiro, Xiaodong Cai, Georgios B. Giannakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

650 Scopus citations


Cooperative diversity (CD) networks have been receiving a lot of attention recently as a distributed means of improving error performance and capacity. For sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), this paper derives the average symbol error probability (SEP) for analog forwarding CD links. The resulting expressions are general as they hold for an arbitrary number of cooperating branches, arbitrary number of cooperating hops per branch, and various channel fading models. Their simplicity provides valuable insights to the performance of CD networks and suggests means of optimizing them. Besides revealing the diversity, they clearly show from where this advantage comes from and prove that presence of diversity does not depend on the specific (e.g., Rayleigh) fading distribution. Finally, they explain how diversity is improved in multihop CD networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1264-1273
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received August 18, 2003; revised February 26, 2004; accepted April 20, 2004. The editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication is X. Wang. This work was prepared through collaborative participation in the Communications and Networks Consortium sponsored by the U. S. Army Research Laboratory under the Collaborative Technology Alliance Program, Cooperative Agreement DAAD19-01-2-0011. The U. S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.


  • Cooperative diversity
  • Diversity
  • Fading
  • Performance analysis


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