Sustaining sleep: Results from the randomized controlled work, family, and health study

Tori L. Crain, Leslie B. Hammer, Todd Bodner, Ryan Olson, Ellen Ernst Kossek, Phyllis Moen, Orfeu M. Buxton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Although calls for intervention designs are numerous within the organizational literature and increasing efforts are being made to conduct rigorous randomized controlled trials, existing studies have rarely evaluated the long-term sustainability of workplace health intervention outcomes, or mechanisms of this process. This is especially the case with regard to objective and subjective sleep outcomes. We hypothesized that a work-family intervention would increase both self-reported and objective actigraphic measures of sleep quantity and sleep quality at 6 and 18 months post-baseline in a sample of information technology workers from a U.S. Fortune 500 company. Significant intervention effects were found on objective actigraphic total sleep time and self-reported sleep insufficiency at the 6- and 18-month follow-up, with no significant decay occurring over time. However, no significant intervention effects were found for objective actigraphic wake after sleep onset or self-reported insomnia symptoms. A significant indirect effect was found for the effect of the intervention on objective actigraphic total sleep time through the proximal intervention target of 6-month control over work schedule and subsequent more distal 12-month family time adequacy. These results highlight the value of long-term occupational health intervention research, while also highlighting the utility of this work-family intervention with respect to some aspects of sleep.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-197
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of occupational health psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was conducted as part of the Work, Family and Health Network (, which is funded by a cooperative agreement through the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Grants U01HD051217, U01HD051218, U01HD051256, and U01HD051276), National Institute on Aging (Grant U01AG027669), Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Grants U01OH008788 and U01HD059773). Grants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (R01HL107240), the William T. Grant Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Administration for Children and Families have provided additional funding. This publication was also supported by the Mountains and Plains Education and Research Center, Grant T42OH009229, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of these institutes and offices. Special acknowledgement goes to Extramural Staff Science Collaborator, Rosalind Berkowitz King, and Lynne Casper, for design of the original Workplace, Family, Health and Well-Being Network Initiative.

Funding Information:
Oregon Health and Science University has a significant financial interest in NwETA, a company that has a commercial interest in the results of this research and technology. This potential conflict was reviewed and managed by Oregon Health and Science University Conflict of Interest in Research Committee. Outside of the submitted work, Orfeu M. Buxton reports investigator-initiated research grant support from Sepracor (now Sunovion) and Cephalon (now Teva), and personal fees from Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America (consulting, speaking), Dinsmore LLC (expert witness testimony and consulting), Matsutani America (scientific advisory board), and Chevron (speaking fee).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 APA, all rights reserved.


  • conservation of resources theory
  • control over work schedule
  • family time adequacy
  • intervention sustainability
  • sleep
  • Health Promotion/methods
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Occupational Health
  • United States
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Social Support
  • Actigraphy
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Work-Life Balance
  • Sleep
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Journal Article


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