This article visualizes bank non-performing loans (NPLs) and government debt distress data integration and an outcome classification after the outbreak of European sovereign debt. Linear and functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and biclustering are used to show the clustering pattern of NPLs and government debt for 25 EU and BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) during the period of 2006 to 2017 through high-dimensional visualizations. The results demonstrate that the government debt markets of EU countries experienced a similar trend in terms of NPLs, with a similar size of NPLs across debt markets. Through visualization, we find that the government debt and NPLs of EU and BRICS countries increased drastically after the crisis, and crisis countries are contagious. However, the impact of the Greek debt crisis is lower for non-crisis countries, because the debt markets of these countries are decoupled from the Greek market. We also find that sovereign debtors in the EU countries have much closer fiscal linkages than BRICS countries. The level of crisis in the EU countries will be higher than that in the BRICS countries if crisis is driven by the common shocks of macroeconomic fundamentals.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant (No. 71702171 No. U1904211, No.71672182, No. U1604262)
This research was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant (No. 71702171 No. U1904211, No.71672182, No. U1604262)
- Bank non-performing loans
- Government debt