Sustainability Standards and Stakeholder Engagement: Lessons From Carbon Markets

Hans Rawhouser, Michael E. Cummings, Alfred Marcus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Stakeholders play an increasingly active role in private governance, including development of standards for measuring sustainability. Building on prior studies focused on standards and stakeholder engagement, we use an innovation management theoretical lens to compare stakeholder engagement and standards developed in two carbon markets: the Climate Action Reserve and the U.N.’s Clean Development Mechanism. We develop and test hypotheses regarding how different processes of stakeholder engagement in standard development affect the number, identity, and age of stakeholders involved, as well as the variation and quality of the resulting standards. In doing so, we contribute to the growing literature on stakeholder engagement in developing sustainability standards.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)263-282
Number of pages20
JournalOrganization and Environment
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018


  • carbon markets
  • crowdsourcing
  • inclusivity
  • stakeholder engagement
  • sustainability standards

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