Survival Rates and Factors Affecting the Outcome Following Immediate and Delayed Implant Placement: A Retrospective Study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Immediate implant placement into extraction sockets has become a widely acceptable treatment option to decrease treatment time and enhance esthetics. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the survival rates of immediate and delayed implant treatment as well as to investigate the effect of patient- and site-related variables on the treatment outcome in a large-scale population-based study.

METHODS: Dental records of patients who received implant therapy were retrieved from the electronic records of the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Demographic characteristics, dental insurance status, socioeconomic status as well as medical history and tobacco use were recorded. The treatment outcome was included as a binary variable (survival/failure). Time to failure (date of procedure to date of visit with failure) was compared between immediate and delayed implant treatment in Cox regression models. Kaplan-Meier plots for the survival of both treatment modalities were created. Patient-sites without failure were censored at the last follow-up visit.

RESULTS: A total of 4519 records of implants were included. The sample mean age was 60.27 years and included 50.7% males and 12.9% tobacco users. High socioeconomic status was characterized for 82.3% of the included population and 63.0% of them were self-payers. Immediate implants were significantly more frequently placed in the maxillary arch ( p < 0.001) than in the mandible. Tobacco users received more often a delayed rather than an immediate implant placement ( p = 0.001). The survival rate analysis revealed there were no significant differences between immediate and delayed implant placements ( p = 0.48). The mean follow-up time was 32.27 months during which 1.5% immediate and 1.1% delayed implants were removed. The estimated mean survival time for immediate implants was 68.90 months, while delayed implants placed in healed sockets showed a mean survival time of 75.11 months. A statistically significant association was found between gender ( p = 0.03) and osteoporosis ( p = 0.001) with treatment outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: The placement of immediate implants achieved similarly high survival rates when compared to delayed implants placed in healed sites. Males and osteoporotic individuals showed significantly higher implant failure than females and non-osteoporotic patients. This study demonstrated that both immediate and delayed implant placements are sound options with predictable treatment outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4598
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume11
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Publication cost for the manuscript was funded by a University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Division of Periodontology Grant (LFW).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Keywords

  • dental implants
  • fresh socket
  • healed socket
  • immediate implant
  • immediate insertion
  • implant failure rate
  • retrospective

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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