Outcome and management of patients who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has evolved in the recent decade. Using a multi-institutional retrospective database we report the predictive factors and survival of lymphoma patients who relapse after allo-HCT. We evaluated 495 allo-HCT recipients transplanted between 2000 and 2015 at 3 academic US medical centers. Landmark analysis evaluating predictive factors was performed at 1 month after allo-HCT relapse with a primary endpoint of postrelapse overall survival (PR-OS). A total of 175 lymphoma patients (35%) experienced relapse after allo-HCT. Of these, 126 patients, median age 46 years (range, 19 to 71), were assessable. Most patients (86%) received subsequent therapy; 80 patients received targeted agents and 19 donor lymphocyte infusion. On univariate analysis median PR-OS for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma was 47.9 months compared with 11.3 months in patients with indolent and 10.1 months in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (P =.04). On multivariate analysis postrelapse therapy administration (no therapy versus targeted therapy: hazard ratio,.21 [95% confidence interval,.10 to.45]; no therapy versus nontargeted therapy: hazard ratio,.26 [95% confidence interval,.11 to.57]), late relapse 130 days after allo-HCT (relative to early relapse: hazard ratio,.25; P <.001), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1 (versus Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2: hazard ratio,.49; P =.003) were associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality. Patients relapsing ≥ 130 days from the time of allo-HCT yielded PR-OS of 48.8 months compared with 6.5 months in patients with early relapse (P <.001). Our data suggest that in the modern era, therapies used for patients experiencing lymphoma relapse after allo-HCT can extend survival.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Postrelapse survival