Purpose: We aimed to describe disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in men with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer receiving immediate hormone therapy as adjunct to radiation therapy, adjunct to radical prostatectomy, or stand-alone therapy. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, the Cochrane Library, and Current Contents (from 1986 to September 2006) yielded 35 high-quality clinical trials (n = 11,105 patients) which formed the evidence base. Selected studies were required to address early hormone therapy in nonmetastatic prostate cancer only. Data on DFS and OS were extracted from individual trials, summarized statistically, and displayed in graphic form. Results: Survival probabilities were extracted from 16 trials (n = 5,987 patients) addressing hormone therapy as an adjunct to radiation therapy, 11 trials (n = 1,885 patients) investigating hormone therapy as an adjunct to prostatectomy, and 10 trials (n = 3,233 patients) evaluating hormone therapy alone. In men receiving hormones and radiation, estimated 5-year DFS and OS were 52% and 82%, whereas median DFS and OS were 5.4 years and more than 7 years, respectively. In men receiving hormones and surgery, 5-year DFS and OS were 64% and 90%, whereas median DFS and OS were more than 6 years and more than 7 years, respectively. In men receiving hormones alone, 5-year DFS and OS were 57% and 70%, whereas median DFS and OS were 6.0 years and more than 7 years, respectively. Conclusion: This systematic review provides a new baseline for expected DFS and OS in patients treated with hormone therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Survival in these men may be longer than estimated previously.