Survival differences by race/ethnicity among children and adolescents diagnosed with germ cell tumors

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14 Scopus citations


Survival differences by racial and ethnic group have been reported in children and adolescents with germ cell tumors (GCTs), but whether these differences depend on stage of disease is unclear. Using the SEER 18 registries (2000–2015), we examined GCT survival differences by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white [NHW], Black, Asian/Pacific Islander [API], Hispanic) separately for males and females aged 0–19 years at diagnosis. We used Kaplan–Meier survival curves (Log-Rank p values) to characterize survival differences. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between race/ethnicity and death. Using an inverse odds weighting mediation analysis, we estimated the association between race/ethnicity and death treating stage of disease as the mediator. There were no significant racial/ethnic survival differences among females. Male survival differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.0001) with NHW males having the best survival. Compared to NHW, API and Hispanic males had significantly higher risks of death (API HR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.32–3.56; Hispanic HR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.42–2.78) (model adjusted for age and year at diagnosis, tumor histology and location, stage). This association was mediated by stage of disease only among Hispanic males with gonadal tumors (indirect HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03–1.35). The increased risk of death after a testicular GCT diagnosis observed among Hispanic males was mediated by stage of disease. For API males and Hispanic males with extragonadal tumors, other unidentified factors including differences in exposures, tumor biology or treatment received may impact the observed racial/ethnic survival disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2433-2441
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant number T32 CA099936 to LAW) and the Children's Cancer Research Fund, Minneapolis, MN.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 UICC


  • pediatric germ cell tumors
  • racial disparities
  • survival


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