The surface reconstructions of AlAs(100) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(100) were mapped as a function of substrate temperature and arsenic flux. Three main reconstructions were observed - a c(4 × 4) at lower temperatures and higher arsenic fluxes, a (2 × 4) at middle temperatures, and a (3 × 2) at higher temperatures and lower arsenic fluxes. Growth of AlAs on AlAs(100) is layer-by-layer for the high temperature and low temperature reconstructions. In the mid-temperature region, AlAs grows rough on (2 × 4) reconstructed AlAs(100) as indicated by rapidly damped reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations and the appearance of three-dimensional (3D) features. The addition of fractional layers of Ga enhances the smooth growth of AlAs. A metastable (5 × 2) reconstruction was observed when a fraction of a layer of Ga was present on the surface. The results indicate that Ga segregates during the growth of AlAs on GaAs(100) at temperatures at least as low as 500°C, and that annealing at temperatures above 700°C removes most of the Ga from the surface.