Surface plasmons induce topological transition in graphene/α-MoO3 heterostructures

Francesco L. Ruta, Brian S.Y. Kim, Zhiyuan Sun, Daniel J. Rizzo, Alexander S. McLeod, Anjaly Rajendran, Song Liu, Andrew J. Millis, James C. Hone, D. N. Basov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Polaritons in hyperbolic van der Waals materials—where principal axes have permittivities of opposite signs—are light-matter modes with unique properties and promising applications. Isofrequency contours of hyperbolic polaritons may undergo topological transitions from open hyperbolas to closed ellipse-like curves, prompting an abrupt change in physical properties. Electronically-tunable topological transitions are especially desirable for future integrated technologies but have yet to be demonstrated. In this work, we present a doping-induced topological transition effected by plasmon-phonon hybridization in graphene/α-MoO3 heterostructures. Scanning near-field optical microscopy was used to image hybrid polaritons in graphene/α-MoO3. We demonstrate the topological transition and characterize hybrid modes, which can be tuned from surface waves to bulk waveguide modes, traversing an exceptional point arising from the anisotropic plasmon-phonon coupling. Graphene/α-MoO3 heterostructures offer the possibility to explore dynamical topological transitions and directional coupling that could inspire new nanophotonic and quantum devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3719
JournalNature communications
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to thank S.H. Park and T. Low at the University of Minnesota for helpful discussions related to exceptional points in plasmon-phonon coupled systems. Research at Columbia University is solely supported as part of Programmable Quantum Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under award DE-SC0019443. WSe2 synthesis was supported by the Center on Precision-Assembled Quantum Materials, funded through the US National Science Foundation (NSF) Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (award no. DMR-2011738). D.N.B. is Moore Investigator in Quantum Materials EPIQS #9455. The Flatiron Institute is a division of the Simons Foundation.

Funding Information:
The authors wish to thank S.H. Park and T. Low at the University of Minnesota for helpful discussions related to exceptional points in plasmon-phonon coupled systems. Research at Columbia University is solely supported as part of Programmable Quantum Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under award DE-SC0019443. WSe synthesis was supported by the Center on Precision-Assembled Quantum Materials, funded through the US National Science Foundation (NSF) Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (award no. DMR-2011738). D.N.B. is Moore Investigator in Quantum Materials EPIQS #9455. The Flatiron Institute is a division of the Simons Foundation. 2

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

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