A photochemical modification of melt-extruded polymeric nanofibers is described. A bioorthogonal functional group is used to decorate fibers made exclusively from commodity polymers, covalently attach fluorophores and peptides, and direct cell growth. Our process begins by using a layered coextrusion method, where poly(μ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers are incorporated within a macroscopic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) tape through a series of die multipliers within the extrusion line. The PEO layer is then removed with a water wash to yield rectangular PCL nanofibers with controlled cross-sectional dimensions. The fibers can be subsequently modified using photochemistry to yield a "clickable" handle for performing the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction on their surface. We have attached fluorophores, which exhibit dense surface coverage when using ligand-accelerated CuAAC reaction conditions. In addition, an RGD peptide motif was coupled to the surface of the fibers. Subsequent cell-based studies have shown that the RGD peptide is biologically accessible at the surface, leading to increased cellular adhesion and spreading versus PCL control surfaces. This functionalized coextruded fiber has the advantages of modularity and scalability, opening a potentially new avenue for biomaterials fabrication.